After the hottest UAV becomes a toy, the anti UAV

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After UAVs become "toys": the anti UAV industry is quietly rising

facing the potential safety hazards that may be brought by the rapid development of UAVs, how to use information technology to counter it

late one night in October 2017, a drone hovered over a prison in a major city in China, and it was possible to commit illegal acts such as placing dangerous goods and photographing supervision facilities. After asking for instructions, the soldier on duty quickly picked up the high-tech electronic gun newly purchased by the unit, aimed at the drone and pulled the trigger. The drone fell on the sound, and the potential safety hazards were quickly eliminated

the above story is not science fiction, but a possible scenario in the future. In recent years, through the continuous efforts of Dajiang, parrot, 3D robotics and other companies, the price of powerful consumer grade UAVs has been continuously reduced, and the simplicity of operation has been continuously improved. UAVs are rapidly moving from sophisticated military equipment to the mass market, becoming toys in the hands of ordinary people. However, with the rapid growth of the consumer UAV market, the continuous emergence of new UAVs with increasingly advanced functions has also brought security and privacy concerns, such as the violation of privacy by UAV peeping, flying in sensitive areas such as state organs and military garrisons endangering national security, and safety accidents caused by improper operation of UAVs, and so on. The United States has experienced panic caused by amateur drone operators flying into the White House; There have also been incidents in Britain where criminals used drones to deliver drugs and guns to prisoners in prisons. As the negative impact of UAV is gradually emerging, the corresponding anti UAV industry is quietly rising. Markets and markets, the second largest market research and consulting company in the world, predicts that by 2022, the global anti UAV market will reach $1.1 billion

key anti UAV technologies

at present, anti UAV technologies in various countries are mainly divided into three categories. The first is interference blocking, which is mainly realized by signal interference, acoustic interference and other technologies. The second is direct destruction, including the use of laser weapons and the use of drones to counter drones. The third is monitoring and control, which is mainly achieved by hijacking radio control. The second type of technology is mainly used in the military field. Next, we will discuss the first and third types of anti UAV technology, and talk about how to use information technology means to counter consumer UAVs

signal interference

at present, radio communication technology is mostly used for the control of UAV. By transmitting high-power interference signals to the target UAV and suppressing the control signals, the UAV can be forced to land or return by itself

the drone defender electron gun for forced landing UAV launched by Battelle company, the upgrading country of mei3ning industry, makes use of this principle. This gun has an electronic jammer installed on the frame of the rifle. Once the trigger is pulled, the jammer will send a full band interference signal to the UAV, making the UAV out of the control of the operator. Without receiving the control signal, it will automatically land on the ground. Battelle spokesman Katy Delaney said that once the signal of the UAV is in a chaotic state, it usually has three options: fall to the ground, return to the operator or descend smoothly. The effective range of this rifle is 400 meters

many domestic companies have also carried out research and development in this area and have achieved remarkable results, such as Xiamen mayako, Shanghai Houhong electronics and other high-tech companies have launched portable anti UAV electron guns, which even surpass the drone defender electron gun in some technical indicators. For example, in terms of effective interference distance, Shanghai Houhong Electronics' products have reached 500-2000 meters

gps spoofing

at present, under normal circumstances, the vast majority of consumer UAVs will choose GPS navigation for flight control, while civil GPS signals are unencrypted, leaving room for utilization

The main principle of GPS deception is to send false geographical coordinates to the UAV control system, so as to control the navigation system and induce the UAV to fly to the wrong place. The GPS signal can be generated by the generator, or it can be recorded in advance and then replayed. Since the GPS signal received by UAV is always based on the signal source with the strongest signal, as long as the strength of the artificial GPS signal on the ground is large enough, it can cover the real GPS signal transmitted from space, so as to deceive the GPS receiving module of UAV. At present, all countries have set no fly zones in the core areas, and many UAV manufacturers have set them in the built-in firmware of UAVs. UAVs cannot take off in the no fly zone, and will land automatically even if they reach the no fly zone. Therefore, as long as the artificial GPS signal on the ground simulates the geographical location as the coordinates of the no fly zone, the UAV can be forced to land by itself. At the 2015 world hacking conference, defco can automatically reset the whole process by pressing the reset key on the main interface. On N 23, the security team from 360 company demonstrated the GPS deception of the UAV, successfully landing a flying UAV on the ground

radio hijacking

now, most of the control signals used by UAVs are in the conventional civil frequency bands such as 1.2Ghz, 2. Start the machine 4GHz, 5.8GHz. With the rapid development of open-source hardware such as Arduino and raspberry pie and the popularity of software radio (SDR) technology, ordinary enthusiasts can also use the hardware purchased from the network and the software source code obtained from the forum to simulate the remote controller to send control signals to UAVs, And cover the signal of the real remote control, so as to obtain the control right of the UAV. In the opening project of geekpwn smart device security competition in 2015, the security team from Tencent successfully hijacked a flying Dajiang spirit 3 UAV through this method. The demonstration was also reported in the "3.15 party" of CCTV the next year, which attracted wide attention. Subsequently, Dajiang company publicly admitted this vulnerability on the official website and upgraded and repaired relevant products

hacker technology

many UAVs directly use Wi Fi to interact for the convenience of users and tablet computers and other mobile devices. In this way, some hacker technologies that have been mature in the Internet can be directly applied to UAVs. For example, through the open port or password guessing in the UAV control system, enter the control system to control the UAV. SAMY kamkar, the legendary hacker who developed the "Sami worm", used this principle to write a UAV hijacking software called "Skyjack", and installed the software into the specially configured UAV. Skyjack flew in the air and looked for other UAVs within the Wi Fi range, and then invaded the UAV and gained control

Wang Dong, a professional engaged in anti UAV applications in the industry and the technical director of Shanghai Houhong electronics, said that the current domestic anti UAV technology is still in the exploratory stage. The radio hijacking technology is difficult to achieve because the UAV manufacturers encrypt the radio signal, and the hacker technology is not easy to commercialize because of the high threshold, so the current technology is mainly interference blocking. When talking about the development direction of anti UAV technology in the future, Wang Dong said that his company would increase investment in the active detection of UAVs, develop products similar to early warning radar systems, and strive to form a UAV defense and control system integrating early warning, control and capture

strict control can develop healthily.

information technology is an important means in the anti UAV system. The cost is easy to accept, and will not cause damage to the UAV hardware. It has a certain degree of security, so it is very suitable for the anti UAV of consumer grade. Due to the inherent characteristics of UAV system, there must be some loopholes. It is through these loopholes supplemented by certain information technology means that we can achieve the counteraction against it. For government law enforcement agencies and security departments, these technical methods provide more means to maintain social security. However, everything has two sides. Once used improperly or maliciously by criminals, these technologies will also be very harmful. For example, the anti UAV electron gun used for signal interference may also affect other electronic equipment. Forging the selection of G1 and volume and placing the tested product (components, components, parts or complete machine) into the climate environment box for experiments will seriously disturb the accuracy of the positioning system. Hijacking radio signals and invading other people's computer information systems are even more illegal, Both the radio management regulations and the information security law clearly stipulate that the application of these technical means must be strictly restricted and standardized

in the future, for the control of UAV system, manufacturers should estimate the existing and possible malicious use in the process of design and production, and take measures to prevent it

in case of signal interference, there are other alternative safety measures

to prevent being cheated by GPS, the displacement and energy consumption can be verified in the process of positioning and navigation

radio hijacking can be prevented by complex frequency hopping and signal encryption

for routine network attacks, corresponding preventive measures must be taken

by taking security precautions against the UAV system in the design and production stages, it can effectively prevent the UAV from being controlled by criminals using various information technologies. The control of UAV flight by government law enforcement agencies should be regulated in legislation and specific technical standards in the future. At present, governments are stepping up relevant research in this area and introducing preliminary laws and regulations. Australia recently revised the regulations related to UAVs, stipulating that small UAVs with a mass of less than 2 kg need to notify the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) to file the flight plan before flying. The United States stipulates that UAVs must be registered with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to obtain a unique number for verification. Shenzhen recently officially released three specifications related to UAVs, including the technical specification for two-dimensional bar code identification of civil UAV system, general requirements for identification of civil UAV system and performance test methods of civil UAV system. After implementation, it will promote the realization of "one code for one UAV" and provide strong support for UAV identification, flight supervision and quality control. After completing the identification of UAVs, a bolder idea is to reserve emergency control back door instructions in each UAV, so that government regulators can directly control UAVs in an emergency

UAV is a new thing, which will inevitably bring some new problems when it develops rapidly. Using information technology to realize the control and counteraction of UAV, on the one hand, it can enable manufacturers and designers to find the shortcomings of their products and improve them. On the other hand, it also promotes the government regulators to better manage UAV, which is a new thing, and provides a good environment for the healthy development of UAV industry

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